A Culture GSV and Its Escorts by Ex-Pacifist on DeviantArt.

An imagining of what a Culture GSV looks like by Ex-Pacifist on DeviantArt.

About once or twice a year, something happens that reminds me of something from an Iain M. Banks novel, and I go that spot on my bookshelves, actual or virtual, and pull one down to re-read. This past month or so, Excession has been my concern, and, as its name suggests, I found myself wondering how I could have missed so much of the novel the first time?

Banks’ Culture novels present a post-scarcity civilization of mixed humans and various ranges of artificial intelligences. At the top of the proverbial heap, and largely running the show, are the Minds, vast intelligences usually tasked with operating a variety of sizes of ships, orbitals, hubs, and other facilities that range in size, in terms of complexity, from small cities (in space) to entire planets. At the top of the hierarchy are the Minds that are also the largest ships in the Culture, the General Service Vehicles (GSVs). The capabilities of the GSVs, as is revealed throughout the series but is also the focus of Excession, are virtually limitless.

Despite their being the true power behind the throne, much of the novels in the Cultureverse are told about and through humans. Speaking of that perspective, it should also be noted that, for the most part, the humans involved are rather close to humanity as we understand and experience it. So, while Culture humans have the ability to change form, change sexes, and lead lives several hundred years, and possibly up to a thousand years, in length. Most of our guides through the Culture are happy to stick to the basics, with the occasional need to gland something to make them more calm or more quick to respond, or whatever is called for by the current situation.

Some human stories are a part of the braided narrative of Excession, but the novel is also fascinatingly most concerned with the actions of various Minds, whose awareness of the shifting nature of it all, especially politics, seems to be what plagues them. The eponymous entity ostensibly at the center of the story, the Excession, seems more a MacGuffin than anything else, save a postscript at novel’s end, but its appearance somewhere within the Culture’s zone of influence is what puts a large number of diverse plot points in motion. (Spoilers ahead.)

In Banks’ Cultureverse, ships move about by tapping into the energy grids that lie “above” and “below” reality as we know it: thus above real space lies “ultra space” and below it lies “infra space.” (The obvious analogues here are the two kinds of radiation that lie just outside the human-visible spectrum we call light, ultraviolet, at a higher frequency, and infrared, at a lower frequency.) Either grid can be tapped, but not both at the same time. The object that gets dubbed the Excession appears to be able to tap both at the same time. This appears to be the limits of its expressibility. Initial attempts to communicate with it result in the loss of the ship. Thereafter, the various ships that come to witness the Excession for themselves keep their distance.

Despite the desire of the Culture minds that the excision might bring some of the known “Elder” civilizations to the scene, the only other civilization that seems interested are the Affront, a brutish, egocentric species that lives to establish their superiority through a variety of means, the more painful the better. The Affront represent, for some in the Culture, a mistake in need of mending, and so the appearance of the Excession, with its possible promise of unknown technological riches, is allowed to lure the Affront into war with the Culture, a war the reader knows, and the Minds involved know, from the first novel in the series, Consider, Phlebas, that the Culture will inevitably win.

One of the concerns of Excession is the Culture’s impulse to intervene in the affairs of others. The goal is always, of course, to make them less brutish, militaristic, and prone to see others as either potential slaves or cannon fodder: in short, to make them more cultured, and the irony of the verb form is not lost on Banks’ and his Culture denizens. There are glimpses of reconsiderations of, and possible recriminations for, the active peace-making in which the Culture engages, in other Culture novels. Echoes of the Idiran war echo in Look to Windward, with one of the Minds being particularly wracked with guilt by events that took place centuries ago. There is also a hint of the Culture having gotten into trouble for its busybody nature in Surface Detail.

But only in Excession is the matter taken up so centrally and by the players who seemingly matter the most but who are largely a backdrop in other novels, the Minds themselves. Like any good speculative fiction opera, there are plots and counterplots and plots within plots and subterfuges. What fascinates is how Banks manages to make matters both mundane enough for the reader to follow as well as surreal, quite literally, enough that we recognize in some fashion that the experiences of the Minds is necessarily not at all like our own. (He drops his guard here regularly when he resorts to analogies like “The giant ship watched the Excession, still billowing out towards it. For all its prodigious power, the Sleeper now felt as helpless as the driver of an ancient covered wagon, caught on a road beneath a volcano, watching the incandescent cloud of a nueé ardente tearing down the mountainside towards it.” Really? A ship with a Mind that does “metamath” for fun and which has, we are told, just finished constructing in record time and with complete stealth some thirty thousand war ships and its first impulse is to imagine itself in a covered wagon?) The problem is, of course, how not like us the Minds are, and yet with their politicking and guilt, they are like us.

And guilt plays a large role in Excession, as it does elsewhere in the Culture books — it is perhaps one of the central themes for Banks, the one emotion a post-scarcity world is sure to feel, one supposes. At least two Minds destroy themselves out of guilt, which is not unlike the Mind that does so in Look to Windward. In the case of all three Minds, they have been guilty of participating in war. In all three circumstances, there were possible mitigating circumstances: the Affront do seem rather horrid and there more horrible impulses would be better curbed than continued to be let loose upon any sector of the galaxy. But, it seems to be the case, in the overall trend of the Culture novels, that it’s better to achieve such means through skullduggery or a bit of carrot-and-sticking. Given, how many of the novels are about the exploits of, willing or unwilling, agents of Contact and/or Special Circumstances, Excession is one tale in which the Culture’s inner workings on front and center and it would appear that they are as willing to dig into their own skulls as those of the civilizations which they seek to improve through their “involvement.”

Anticipating the Turn

Breton’s apartment in Paris, filled with objects he and Levi-Strauss bought while exiled in New York during the war.

As with any intellectual history, there is more to “the turn toward performance” than meets the eye: there is considerable buildup across a broad intellectual front, including the introduction of existentialism into the American academy and public culture. (E.g., William Barrett’s The Irrational Man [1958] — see note below). A consideration of these broader trends would reveal that the acceptance of work by Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Albert Camus following the second World War was anticipated by work in American philosophy, such as John Dewey’s Art as Experience (1934) and Kenneth Burke’s Philosophy of Literary Form (1941). Some of the effort to discern a particular American culture was in response to the rise of rich international connections (which manifested in politics as a concern over communism), many of which were brought about by displaced intellectuals who came to the U.S. in the thirties and forties. Some of them stayed and the result was that American intellectuals interested in work by Roman Jakobson found him referring to work by Vladimir Propp and Mikhail Bakhtin, and so American scholars found themselves confronted by an entire school of literary theory, now known as Russian formalism, which interacted somewhat with their emerging interest in structuralism as it had been developed in France by Lévi-Strauss, Piaget, Lacan, and others. (And all of this ignores the many contributions of the Frankfurt School during this time.)

Burke, Kenneth. 1973/1941. Literature as Equipment for Living. The Philosophy of Literary Form. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Pp. 293-304.

Jakobson Roman. 1960. Closing Statement: Linguistics and Poetics. In Style in Language, 350-377. Ed. Thomas Sebeok. MIT Press.

Lord, Albert. 1960. The Singer of Tales. Harvard University Press. (The link below will take you to an online version of book hosted by Harvard University.)

Note: If you have never had the chance to read Barrett’s The Irrational Man, I highly recommend it. A survey of its chapter titles should prove reason enough: from “The Encounter with Nothingness” and “The Testimony of Modern Art” to “The Place of the Furies,” the book was the gateway to existentialism, and thus also phenomenology, for many.

Hannah Arendt holding court at the New School for Social Research.

Python’s `google` Module

So, like me, you become interested in the possibility of executing Google searches from within a Python script, and, like me, you installed the google module — which some have noted is no longer developed by Google itself but by a third party — and got an import error, here is what happened: yes, you did install it as google:

pip install google

but you do not call it google because that will lead to an ImportError. Instead, the name of the module is googlesearch, so what you want to do is this:

from googlesearch import search

Now it works.

Hat tip to shylajhaa sathyaram in his comment on GeeksforGeeks.


“One popular misconception [about machine learning] is that people think they have enough data when they don’t. When people say machine learning, a very large segment of predictions are based on existing data. And in order for that to work, you generally have to have a big labeled set of data,” says Hillary Green-Lerman of Codecademy.

Emphasis on labeled.


“People often don’t realize how much of machine learning is getting data into a format so that you can feed it into an algorithm. The algorithms are actually usually available pre-baked,” Hillary said. “In a lot of ways, you need to know how to pick the best linear regression for your data, but you don’t really need to know the intricacies of how it’s programmed. You do need to work the data into a format where each row is a data point, the kind of thing you’d want to pick.

Difficulties with PIP

As I have noted before, the foundation for my work in Python is built on first installing the Xcode Command Line tools, then install MacPorts, then installing (using MacPorts) Python and PIP. Everything I then install within my Python setup, which is pretty much everything else, is done using PIP, so when I kept getting the error below after finally acquiescing to macOS’s demands to upgrade to High Sierra, I was more than a little concerned:

ImportError: No module named 'packaging'

See below for the complete traceback.1

I tried install setuptools using MacPorts, as well as uninstalling PIP. I eventually even uninstalled both Python and PIP and restarted my machine. No joy.

Joy came with this SO thread which suggested I try:

wget https://bootstrap.pypa.io/get-pip.py
sudo python get-pip.py

Everything seems to be in working order now.

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/opt/local/bin/pip", line 6, in <module>
    from pkg_resources import load_entry_point
  File "/Users/john/Library/Python/3.4/lib/python/site-packages/pkg_resources/__init__.py", line 70, in <module>
    import packaging.version
ImportError: No module named 'packaging'
~ % sudo pip search jupyter
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/opt/local/bin/pip", line 6, in <module>
    from pkg_resources import load_entry_point
  File "/Users/john/Library/Python/3.4/lib/python/site-packages/pkg_resources/__init__.py", line 70, in <module>
    import packaging.version
ImportError: No module named 'packaging'
~ % sudo pip install setuptools
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/opt/local/bin/pip", line 6, in <module>
    from pkg_resources import load_entry_point
  File "/Users/john/Library/Python/3.4/lib/python/site-packages/pkg_resources/__init__.py", line 70, in <module>
    import packaging.version
ImportError: No module named 'packaging'

  1. For those interested, the complete traceback looked like this: 


When considering a classifier, effectiveness can be considered in terms of accuracy as well as precision and recall. (Precision and recall seem to mirror “senstivity/specificity”, unless I am misunderstanding those terms.)

Bookends, at last

In September 2016, frustrated with data that had gone missing in a transition between versions of the reference manager I had been using and liked very much, I listed the following specifications for what I wanted in such an application:

  • drag and drop input with autocompletion of data fields with as few clicks as possible;
  • storage of documents in human-recognizable containers: articles, books, etc. with names that look like in-text citation: e.g., Glassie_1982.pdf;
  • ability to scan PDF for highlights and notes and to print those notes and highlights separately;
  • ability to indicate if physical copy is present — or if physical copy is only copy — and its location — the ability to check out a physical copy would be useful;
  • ability to handle epubs gracefully — being able to read and mark them up within the app would be nice.

I am relieved to note that Bookends has much of this. For most items with a DOI, it can fairly quickly grab all the needed metadata — there really is no reason that at this moment in time anyone needs to spend time filling in those fields themselves. (I should note that occasionally Bookends either confuses the order of author’s names in BibTex files or, perhaps, that information is recorded properly in BibTex.)

While I do wish that Bookends would give me the option of replacing spaces with underscores automagically, when it offers to rename files it does so sensibly and in a human-readable form and in a location of my choosing.

Bookends’ tagging system remains opaque to me, but I’ve compensated by creating groups that do much of the work of tags. I’ll live with it.